Errata
The following corrections and other changes have been made in the DLMF, and are pending for the Handbook of Mathematical Functions. The Editors thank the users who have contributed to the accuracy of the DLMF Project by submitting reports of possible errors. For confirmed errors, the Editors have made the corrections listed here. Printable errata .
Version 1.0.22 (March 15, 2019)
 Subsection 14.2(iii)

Previously the exponents of the associated Legendre differential equation (14.2.2) at infinity were given incorrectly by $\{\nu 1,\nu \}$. These were replaced by $\{\nu +1,\nu \}$.
Reported by Hans Volkmer on 20190130
 Subsection 18.15(i)

In the line just below (18.15.4), it was previously stated “is less than twice the first neglected term in absolute value.” It now states “is less than twice the first neglected term in absolute value, in which one has to take $\mathrm{cos}{\theta}_{n,m,\mathrm{\ell}}=1$.”
Reported by Gergő Nemes on 20190208
 Equation (33.11.1)

33.11.1 ${H}_{\mathrm{\ell}}^{\pm}(\eta ,\rho )$ $\sim {e}^{\pm \mathrm{i}{\theta}_{\mathrm{\ell}}(\eta ,\rho )}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{\left(a\right)}_{k}{\left(b\right)}_{k}}{k!{(\pm 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{k}}}$ Previously this formula was expressed as an equality. Since this formula expresses an asymptotic expansion, it has been corrected by using instead an $\sim $ relation.
Reported by Gergő Nemes on 20190129
Version 1.0.21 (December 15, 2018)
 Equation (10.22.72)

10.22.72 ${\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{J}_{\mu}\left(at\right){J}_{\nu}\left(bt\right){J}_{\nu}\left(ct\right){t}^{1\mu}dt$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{(bc)}^{\mu 1}\mathrm{sin}\left((\mu \nu )\pi \right){(\mathrm{sinh}\chi )}^{\mu \frac{1}{2}}}{{(\frac{1}{2}{\pi}^{3})}^{\frac{1}{2}}{a}^{\mu}}}{\mathrm{e}}^{(\mu \frac{1}{2})\mathrm{i}\pi}{Q}_{\nu \frac{1}{2}}^{\frac{1}{2}\mu}\left(\mathrm{cosh}\chi \right),$ $\mathrm{\Re}\mu >\frac{1}{2},\mathrm{\Re}\nu >1,a>b+c,\mathrm{cosh}\chi =({a}^{2}{b}^{2}{c}^{2})/(2bc)$ Originally, the factor on the righthand side was written as $\frac{{(bc)}^{\mu 1}\mathrm{cos}\left(\nu \pi \right){(\mathrm{sinh}\chi )}^{\mu \frac{1}{2}}}{{(\frac{1}{2}{\pi}^{3})}^{\frac{1}{2}}{a}^{\mu}}$, which was taken directly from Watson (1944, p. 412, (13.46.5)), who uses a different normalization for the associated Legendre function of the second kind ${Q}_{\nu}^{\mu}$. Watson’s ${Q}_{\nu}^{\mu}$ equals $\frac{\mathrm{sin}\left((\nu +\mu )\pi \right)}{\mathrm{sin}\left(\nu \pi \right)}{\mathrm{e}}^{\mu \pi \mathrm{i}}{Q}_{\nu}^{\mu}$ in the DLMF.
Reported by Arun Ravishankar on 20181022
 Subsection 26.7(iv)

In the final line of this subsection, $\mathrm{Wm}\left(n\right)$ was replaced by $\mathrm{Wp}\left(n\right)$ twice, and the wording was changed from “or, equivalently, $N={\mathrm{e}}^{\mathrm{Wm}\left(n\right)}$” to “or, specifically, $N={\mathrm{e}}^{\mathrm{Wp}\left(n\right)}$”.
Reported by Gergő Nemes on 20180409
 Equations (31.16.2) and (31.16.3)

31.16.2 $xy$ $=a{\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\theta {\mathrm{cos}}^{2}\varphi ,$ $(x1)(y1)$ $=(1a){\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\theta {\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\varphi ,$ $(xa)(ya)$ $=a(a1){\mathrm{cos}}^{2}\theta $ 31.16.3 ${A}_{0}$ $={\displaystyle \frac{n!}{{\left(\gamma +\delta \right)}_{n}}}{\mathit{Hp}}_{n,m}\left(1\right),{Q}_{0}{A}_{0}+{R}_{0}{A}_{1}=0$ Originally $x,y$ were incorrectly defined by the set of equations (31.16.2), given previously as “$x={\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\theta {\mathrm{cos}}^{2}\varphi ,$ $y={\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\theta {\mathrm{sin}}^{2}\varphi $”. In fact, $x,y$ are implicitly defined by the corrected set of equations. In (31.16.3), the initial data ${A}_{0}$, previously missing, has now been included.
 Other Changes

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In Paragraph Confluent Hypergeometric Functions in §7.18(iv), a note about the multivalued nature of the Kummer confluent hypergeometric function of the second kind $U$ on the righthand side of (7.18.10) was inserted.

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In regard to (25.14.1), the previous constraint $a\ne 0,1,2,\mathrm{\dots},$ was removed. A clarification regarding the correct constraints for Lerch’s transcendent $\mathrm{\Phi}(z,s,a)$ has been added in the text immediately below. In particular, it is now stated that if $s$ is not an integer then $$; if $s$ is a positive integer then $a\ne 0,1,2,\mathrm{\dots}$; if $s$ is a nonpositive integer then $a$ can be any complex number.
Version 1.0.20 (September 15, 2018)
 Changes


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The constraint $a\ne 0$ was added in (4.8.14).

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In Chapter 18 Orthogonal Polynomials, the reference Ismail (2005) has been replaced throughout by the further corrected paperback version Ismail (2009).

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In Section 36.1 Special Notation, the entry for $\ast $ to represent complex conjugation was removed (see Version 1.0.19).
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A software bug that had corrupted some figures, such as those in About Color Map, has been corrected.

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Version 1.0.19 (June 22, 2018)
 Equation (33.6.5)

33.6.5 ${H}_{\mathrm{\ell}}^{\pm}(\eta ,\rho )$ $=\begin{array}{l}{\displaystyle \frac{{e}^{\pm \mathrm{i}{\theta}_{\mathrm{\ell}}(\eta ,\rho )}}{(2\mathrm{\ell}+1)!\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\mathrm{\ell}\pm \mathrm{i}\eta \right)}}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\times (\begin{array}{l}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}\begin{array}{l}{\displaystyle \frac{{\left(a\right)}_{k}}{{\left(2\mathrm{\ell}+2\right)}_{k}k!}}{(\mp 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{a+k}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\times \left(\mathrm{ln}\left(\mp 2\mathrm{i}\rho \right)+\psi \left(a+k\right)\psi \left(1+k\right)\psi \left(2\mathrm{\ell}+2+k\right)\right)\end{array}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=1}^{2\mathrm{\ell}+1}}{\displaystyle \frac{(2\mathrm{\ell}+1)!(k1)!}{(2\mathrm{\ell}+1k)!{\left(1a\right)}_{k}}}{(\mp 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{ak})\end{array}\end{array}$ Originally the factor in the denominator on the righthand side was written incorrectly as $\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\mathrm{\ell}+\mathrm{i}\eta \right)$. This has been corrected to $\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\mathrm{\ell}\pm \mathrm{i}\eta \right)$.
Reported by Ian Thompson on 20180517
 Sections 33.10(ii), 33.10(iii)

Originally it was stated incorrectly that $\rho $ was fixed. This has been corrected to state that $\eta \rho $ is fixed.
Reported by Ian Thompson on 20180517
 Equation (33.11.1)

33.11.1 ${H}_{\mathrm{\ell}}^{\pm}(\eta ,\rho )$ $={e}^{\pm \mathrm{i}{\theta}_{\mathrm{\ell}}(\eta ,\rho )}{\displaystyle \sum _{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{\left(a\right)}_{k}{\left(b\right)}_{k}}{k!{(\pm 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{k}}}$ Originally the factor in the denominator on the righthand side was written incorrectly as ${(\mp 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{k}$. This has been corrected to ${(\pm 2\mathrm{i}\rho )}^{k}$.
Reported by Ian Thompson on 20180517
 Other Changes


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The overloaded operator $\equiv $ is now more clearly separated (and linked) to two distinct cases: equivalence by definition (in §§1.4(ii), 1.4(v), 2.7(i), 2.10(iv), 3.1(i), 3.1(iv), 4.18, 9.18(ii), 9.18(vi), 9.18(vi), 18.2(iv), 20.2(iii), 20.7(vi), 23.20(ii), 25.10(i), 26.15, 31.17(i)); and modular equivalence (in §§24.10(i), 24.10(ii), 24.10(iii), 24.10(iv), 24.15(iii), 24.19(ii), 26.14(i), 26.21, 27.2(i), 27.8, 27.9, 27.11, 27.12, 27.14(v), 27.14(vi), 27.15, 27.16, 27.19).
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In Chapter 35 Functions of Matrix Argument, the generalized hypergeometric function of matrix argument ${}_{p}F_{q}({a}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{a}_{p};{b}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{b}_{q};\mathbf{T})$, was labeled inadvertently as its single variable counterpart ${}_{p}F_{q}({a}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{a}_{p};{b}_{1},\mathrm{\dots},{b}_{q};\mathbf{T})$. Furthermore, the Jacobi function of matrix argument ${P}_{\nu}^{(\gamma ,\delta )}\left(\mathbf{T}\right)$, and the Laguerre function of matrix argument ${L}_{\nu}^{(\gamma )}\left(\mathbf{T}\right)$, were also labeled inadvertently (and incorrectly) in terms of the single variable counterparts given by ${P}_{\nu}^{(\gamma ,\delta )}\left(\mathbf{T}\right)$, and ${L}_{\nu}^{(\gamma )}\left(\mathbf{T}\right)$. In order to resolve these inconsistencies, these functions now link correctly to their respective definitions.

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Version 1.0.18 (March 27, 2018)
 Table 5.4.1

The table of extrema for the Euler gamma function $\mathrm{\Gamma}$ had several entries in the ${x}_{n}$ column that were wrong in the last 2 or 3 digits. These have been corrected and 10 extra decimal places have been included.
$n$ ${x}_{n}$ $\mathrm{\Gamma}\left({x}_{n}\right)$ 0 $\mathrm{1.46163\hspace{0.33em}21449\hspace{0.33em}68362\hspace{0.33em}34126}$ $\mathrm{0.88560\hspace{0.33em}31944\hspace{0.33em}10888\hspace{0.33em}70028}$ 1 $\mathrm{0.50408\hspace{0.33em}30082\hspace{0.33em}64455\hspace{0.33em}40926}$ $\mathrm{3.54464\hspace{0.33em}36111\hspace{0.33em}55005\hspace{0.33em}08912}$ 2 $\mathrm{1.57349\hspace{0.33em}84731\hspace{0.33em}62390\hspace{0.33em}45878}$ $\mathrm{2.30240\hspace{0.33em}72583\hspace{0.33em}39680\hspace{0.33em}13582}$ 3 $\mathrm{2.61072\hspace{0.33em}08684\hspace{0.33em}44144\hspace{0.33em}65000}$ $\mathrm{0.88813\hspace{0.33em}63584\hspace{0.33em}01241\hspace{0.33em}92010}$ 4 $\mathrm{3.63529\hspace{0.33em}33664\hspace{0.33em}36901\hspace{0.33em}09784}$ $\mathrm{0.24512\hspace{0.33em}75398\hspace{0.33em}34366\hspace{0.33em}25044}$ 5 $\mathrm{4.65323\hspace{0.33em}77617\hspace{0.33em}43142\hspace{0.33em}44171}$ $\mathrm{0.05277\hspace{0.33em}96395\hspace{0.33em}87319\hspace{0.33em}40076}$ 6 $\mathrm{5.66716\hspace{0.33em}24415\hspace{0.33em}56885\hspace{0.33em}53585}$ $\mathrm{0.00932\hspace{0.33em}45944\hspace{0.33em}82614\hspace{0.33em}85052}$ 7 $\mathrm{6.67841\hspace{0.33em}82130\hspace{0.33em}73426\hspace{0.33em}74283}$ $\mathrm{0.00139\hspace{0.33em}73966\hspace{0.33em}08949\hspace{0.33em}76730}$ 8 $\mathrm{7.68778\hspace{0.33em}83250\hspace{0.33em}31626\hspace{0.33em}03744}$ $\mathrm{0.00018\hspace{0.33em}18784\hspace{0.33em}44909\hspace{0.33em}40419}$ 9 $\mathrm{8.69576\hspace{0.33em}41638\hspace{0.33em}16401\hspace{0.33em}26649}$ $\mathrm{0.00002\hspace{0.33em}09252\hspace{0.33em}90446\hspace{0.33em}52667}$ 10 $\mathrm{9.70267\hspace{0.33em}25400\hspace{0.33em}01863\hspace{0.33em}73608}$ $\mathrm{0.00000\hspace{0.33em}21574\hspace{0.33em}16104\hspace{0.33em}52285}$ Reported 20180217 by David Smith.
 Other Changes


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The factor on the righthand side of Equation (10.9.26) containing $\mathrm{cos}(\mu \nu )\theta $ has been been replaced with $\mathrm{cos}\left((\mu \nu )\theta \right)$ to clarify the meaning.

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In Paragraph Confluent Hypergeometric Functions in §10.16, several Whittaker confluent hypergeometric functions were incorrectly linked to the definitions of the Kummer confluent hypergeometric and parabolic cylinder functions. However, to the eye, the functions appeared correct. The links were corrected.

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In Equation (15.6.9), it was clarified that $\lambda \in \u2102$.

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Originally Equation (19.16.9) had the constraint $a,{a}^{\prime}>0$. This constraint was replaced with ${b}_{1}+\mathrm{\cdots}+{b}_{n}>a>0$, ${b}_{j}\in \mathbb{R}$. It therefore follows from Equation (19.16.10) that ${a}^{\prime}>0$. The last sentence of Subsection 19.16(ii) was elaborated to mention that generalizations may also be found in Carlson (1977b). These were suggested by Bastien Roucariès.

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In Section 19.25(vi), the Weierstrass lattice roots ${e}_{j},$ were labeled inadvertently as the base of the natural logarithm. In order to resolve this inconsistency, the lattice roots ${e}_{j}$, and lattice invariants ${g}_{2}$, ${g}_{3}$, now link to their respective definitions (see §§23.2(i), 23.3(i)). This was reported by Felix Ospald.

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In Equation (19.25.37), the Weierstrass zeta function was incorrectly linked to the definition of the Riemann zeta function. However, to the eye, the function appeared correct. The link was corrected.

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In Equation (27.12.5), the term originally written as $\sqrt{\mathrm{ln}x}$ was rewritten as ${(\mathrm{ln}x)}^{1/2}$ to be consistent with other equations in the same subsection.

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Version 1.0.17 (December 22, 2017)
 Paragraph Mellin–Barnes Integrals in §8.6(ii)

The descriptions for the paths of integration of the MellinBarnes integrals (8.6.10)–(8.6.12) have been updated. The description for (8.6.11) now states that the path of integration is to the right of all poles. Previously it stated incorrectly that the path of integration had to separate the poles of the gamma function from the pole at $s=0$. The paths of integration for (8.6.10) and (8.6.12) have been clarified. In the case of (8.6.10), it separates the poles of the gamma function from the pole at $s=a$ for $\gamma (a,z)$. In the case of (8.6.12), it separates the poles of the gamma function from the poles at $s=0,1,2,\mathrm{\dots}$.
Reported 20170710 by Kurt Fischer.
 Section 10.37

In §10.37, it was originally stated incorrectly that (10.37.1) holds for $$. The claim has been updated to $\mathrm{ph}z\le \frac{1}{2}\pi $.
Reported 20171114 by Gergő Nemes.
 Equation (18.27.6)

18.27.6 ${P}_{n}^{(\alpha ,\beta )}(x;c,d;q)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{c}^{n}{q}^{(\alpha +1)n}{({q}^{\alpha +1},{q}^{\alpha +1}{c}^{1}d;q)}_{n}}{{(q,q;q)}_{n}}}{P}_{n}({q}^{\alpha +1}{c}^{1}x;{q}^{\alpha},{q}^{\beta},{q}^{\alpha}{c}^{1}d;q)$ Originally the first argument to the big $q$Jacobi polynomial on the righthand side was written incorrectly as ${q}^{\alpha +1}{c}^{1}dx$.
Reported 20170927 by Tom Koornwinder.
 Equation (21.6.5)

21.6.5 $\mathbf{T}$ $={\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}}\left[\begin{array}{cccc}\hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill \\ \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill \\ \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill \\ \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill & \hfill 1\hfill \end{array}\right]$ Originally the prefactor $\frac{1}{2}$ on the righthand side was missing.
Reported 20170812 by Wolfgang Bauhardt.
 Equation (27.12.8)

27.12.8 $$\frac{\mathrm{li}\left(x\right)}{\varphi \left(m\right)}+O\left(x\mathrm{exp}\left(\lambda (\alpha ){(\mathrm{ln}x)}^{1/2}\right)\right),$$ $m\le {(\mathrm{ln}x)}^{\alpha}$, $\alpha >0$ Originally the first term was given incorrectly by $\frac{x}{\varphi \left(m\right)}$.
Reported 20171204 by Gergő Nemes.
 Other Changes

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Originally named as a complementary error function, (7.2.3) has been renamed as the Faddeeva (or Faddeyeva) function $w\left(z\right)$.
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Bounds have been sharpened in §9.7(iii). The second paragraph now reads, “The $n$th error term is bounded in magnitude by the first neglected term multiplied by $\chi (n+\sigma )+1$ where $\sigma =\frac{1}{6}$ for (9.7.7) and $\sigma =0$ for (9.7.8), provided that $n\ge 0$ in the first case and $n\ge 1$ in the second case.” Previously it read, “In (9.7.7) and (9.7.8) the $n$th error term is bounded in magnitude by the first neglected term multiplied by $2\chi (n)\mathrm{exp}\left(\sigma \pi /(72\zeta )\right)$ where $\sigma =5$ for (9.7.7) and $\sigma =7$ for (9.7.8), provided that $n\ge 1$ in both cases.” In Equation (9.7.16)
9.7.16 $\mathrm{Bi}\left(x\right)$ $\le {\displaystyle \frac{{\mathrm{e}}^{\xi}}{\sqrt{\pi}{x}^{1/4}}}\left(1+\left(\chi (\frac{7}{6})+1\right){\displaystyle \frac{5}{72\xi}}\right),$ ${\mathrm{Bi}}^{\prime}\left(x\right)$ $\le {\displaystyle \frac{{x}^{1/4}{\mathrm{e}}^{\xi}}{\sqrt{\pi}}}\left(1+\left({\displaystyle \frac{\pi}{2}}+1\right){\displaystyle \frac{7}{72\xi}}\right),$ the bounds on the righthand sides have been sharpened. The factors $\left(\chi (\frac{7}{6})+1\right)\frac{5}{72\xi}$, $\left(\frac{\pi}{2}+1\right)\frac{7}{72\xi}$, were originally given by $\frac{5\pi}{72\xi}\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{5\pi}{72\xi}\right)$, $\frac{7\pi}{72\xi}\mathrm{exp}\left(\frac{7\pi}{72\xi}\right)$, respectively.

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Bounds have been sharpened in §9.7(iv). The first paragraph now reads, “The $n$th error term in (9.7.5) and (9.7.6) is bounded in magnitude by the first neglected term multiplied by
9.7.17 $$ provided that $n\ge 0$, $\sigma =\frac{1}{6}$ for (9.7.5) and $n\ge 1$, $\sigma =0$ for (9.7.6).” Previously it read, “When $n\ge 1$ the $n$th error term in (9.7.5) and (9.7.6) is bounded in magnitude by the first neglected term multiplied by
9.7.17 $$  •
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The second and the fourth lines of (19.7.2) containing ${k}^{\prime}/ik$ have both been replaced with $i{k}^{\prime}/k$ to clarify the meaning.

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Originally Equation (25.2.4) had the constraint $\mathrm{\Re}s>0$. This constraint was removed because, as stated after (25.2.1), $\zeta \left(s\right)$ is meromorphic with a simple pole at $s=1$, and therefore $\zeta \left(s\right){(s1)}^{1}$ is an entire function. This was suggested by John Harper.

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The title of §32.16 was changed from Physical to Physical Applications.
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Version 1.0.16 (September 18, 2017)
 Equation (8.12.18)

8.12.18 $$\begin{array}{c}\hfill Q(a,z)\hfill \\ \hfill P(a,z)\hfill \end{array}\}\sim \frac{{z}^{a\frac{1}{2}}{\mathrm{e}}^{z}}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(a\right)}\left(d(\pm \chi )\sum _{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{{A}_{k}(\chi )}{{z}^{k/2}}\mp \sum _{k=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{{B}_{k}(\chi )}{{z}^{k/2}}\right)$$ The original $\pm $ in front of the second summation was replaced by $\mp $ to correct an error in Paris (2002b); for details see https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.00548.
Reported 20170128 by Richard Paris.
 Equation (14.5.14)

14.5.14 ${\mathsf{Q}}_{\nu}^{1/2}\left(\mathrm{cos}\theta \right)$ $={\left({\displaystyle \frac{\pi}{2\mathrm{sin}\theta}}\right)}^{1/2}{\displaystyle \frac{\mathrm{cos}\left(\left(\nu +\frac{1}{2}\right)\theta \right)}{\nu +\frac{1}{2}}}$ Originally this equation was incorrect because of a minus sign in front of the righthand side.
Reported 20170410 by André GreinerPetter.
 Equations (17.2.22) and (17.2.23)

17.2.22 $$\frac{{(q{a}^{\frac{1}{2}},q{a}^{\frac{1}{2}};q)}_{n}}{{({a}^{\frac{1}{2}},{a}^{\frac{1}{2}};q)}_{n}}=\frac{{(a{q}^{2};{q}^{2})}_{n}}{{(a;{q}^{2})}_{n}}=\frac{1a{q}^{2n}}{1a}$$ 17.2.23 $$\frac{{(q{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},q{\omega}_{k}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},\mathrm{\dots},q{\omega}_{k}^{k1}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}};q)}_{n}}{{({a}^{\frac{1}{k}},{\omega}_{k}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},\mathrm{\dots},{\omega}_{k}^{k1}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}};q)}_{n}}=\frac{{(a{q}^{k};{q}^{k})}_{n}}{{(a;{q}^{k})}_{n}}=\frac{1a{q}^{kn}}{1a}$$ The numerators of the leftmost fractions were corrected to read ${(q{a}^{\frac{1}{2}},q{a}^{\frac{1}{2}};q)}_{n}$ and ${(q{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},q{\omega}_{k}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},\mathrm{\dots},q{\omega}_{k}^{k1}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}};q)}_{n}$ instead of ${(q{a}^{\frac{1}{2}},a{q}^{\frac{1}{2}};q)}_{n}$ and ${(a{q}^{\frac{1}{k}},q{\omega}_{k}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}},\mathrm{\dots},q{\omega}_{k}^{k1}{a}^{\frac{1}{k}};q)}_{n}$, respectively.
Reported 20170626 by Jason Zhao.
 Figure 20.3.1

The locations of the tick marks denoting $1.5$ and $2$ on the $x$axis were corrected.
Reported 20170522 by Paul Abbott.
 Equation (28.8.5)

28.8.5 $${V}_{m}(\xi )\sim \begin{array}{l}\frac{1}{{2}^{4}h}\left({D}_{m+2}\left(\xi \right)m(m1){D}_{m2}\left(\xi \right)\right)\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}+\frac{1}{{2}^{10}{h}^{2}}(\begin{array}{l}{D}_{m+6}\left(\xi \right)+({m}^{2}25m36){D}_{m+2}\left(\xi \right)\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}m(m1)({m}^{2}+27m10){D}_{m2}\left(\xi \right)\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}6!\left(\genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{m}{6}\right){D}_{m6}\left(\xi \right))\end{array}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}+\mathrm{\cdots}\end{array}$$ Originally the $$ in front of the $6!$ was given incorrectly as $+$.
Reported 20170202 by Daniel Karlsson.
 Other Changes


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To be consistent with the notation used in (8.12.16), Equation (8.12.5) was changed to read
8.12.5 $$\frac{{\mathrm{e}}^{\pm \pi \mathrm{i}a}}{2\mathrm{i}\mathrm{sin}(\pi a)}Q(a,z{\mathrm{e}}^{\pm \pi \mathrm{i}})=\pm \frac{1}{2}\mathrm{erfc}\left(\pm \mathrm{i}\eta \sqrt{a/2}\right)\mathrm{i}T(a,\eta )$$ 
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Following a suggestion from James McTavish on 20170406, the recurrence relation ${u}_{k}=\frac{(6k5)(6k3)(6k1)}{(2k1)216k}{u}_{k1}$ was added to Equation (9.7.2).

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In §15.2(ii), the unnumbered equation
$\underset{c\to n}{lim}{\displaystyle \frac{F(a,b;c;z)}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(c\right)}}$ $=\mathbf{F}(a,b;n;z)={\displaystyle \frac{{\left(a\right)}_{n+1}{\left(b\right)}_{n+1}}{(n+1)!}}{z}^{n+1}F(a+n+1,b+n+1;n+2;z),$ $n=0,1,2,\mathrm{\dots}$ was added in the second paragraph. An equation number will be assigned in an expanded numbering scheme that is under current development. Additionally, the discussion following (15.2.6) was expanded.
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A bibliographic citation was added in §11.13(i).

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Version 1.0.15 (June 1, 2017)
 Changes


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There have been extensive changes in the notation used for the integral transforms defined in §1.14. These changes are applied throughout the DLMF. The following table summarizes the changes.
Transform New Abbreviated Old Notation Notation Notation Fourier $\mathcal{F}\left(f\right)\left(x\right)$ $\mathcal{F}f\left(x\right)$ Fourier Cosine ${\mathcal{F}}_{c}\left(f\right)\left(x\right)$ ${\mathcal{F}}_{c}f\left(x\right)$ Fourier Sine ${\mathcal{F}}_{s}\left(f\right)\left(x\right)$ ${\mathcal{F}}_{s}f\left(x\right)$ Laplace $\mathcal{L}\left(f\right)\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{L}f\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{L}(f(t);s)$ Mellin $\mathcal{M}\left(f\right)\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{M}f\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{M}(f;s)$ Hilbert $\mathscr{H}\left(f\right)\left(s\right)$ $\mathscr{H}f\left(s\right)$ $\mathscr{H}(f;s)$ Stieltjes $\mathcal{S}\left(f\right)\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{S}f\left(s\right)$ $\mathcal{S}(f;s)$ Previously, for the Fourier, Fourier cosine and Fourier sine transforms, either temporary local notations were used or the Fourier integrals were written out explicitly.

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Several changes have been made in §1.16(vii) to

(i)
make consistent use of the Fourier transform notations $\mathcal{F}\left(f\right)$, $\mathcal{F}\left(\varphi \right)$ and $\mathcal{F}\left(u\right)$ where $f$ is a function of one real variable, $\varphi $ is a test function of $n$ variables associated with tempered distributions, and $u$ is a tempered distribution (see (1.14.1), (1.16.29) and (1.16.35));

(ii)
introduce the partial differential operator $\mathbf{D}$ in (1.16.30);

(iii)
clarify the definition (1.16.32) of the partial differential operator $P(\mathbf{D})$; and
 (iv)

(i)

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An entire new Subsection 1.16(viii) Fourier Transforms of Special Distributions, was contributed by Roderick Wong.

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The validity constraint $$ was added to (9.5.6). Additionally, specific source citations are now given in the metadata for all equations in Chapter 9 Airy and Related Functions.

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The relation between ClebschGordan and $\mathit{3}j$ symbols was clarified, and the sign of ${m}_{3}$ was changed for readability. The reference Condon and Shortley (1935) for the ClebschGordan coefficients was replaced by Edmonds (1974) and Rotenberg et al. (1959) and the references for $\mathit{3}j$, $\mathit{6}j$, $\mathit{9}j$ symbols were made more precise in §34.1.

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The website’s icons and graphical decorations were upgraded to use SVG, and additional icons and mousecursors were employed to improve usability of the interactive figures.

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Version 1.0.14 (December 21, 2016)
 Equation (8.18.3)

8.18.3 ${I}_{x}(a,b)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(a+b\right)}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(a\right)}}\left({\displaystyle \sum _{k=0}^{n1}}{d}_{k}{F}_{k}+O\left({a}^{n}\right){F}_{0}\right)$ The range of $x$ was extended to include $1$. Previously this equation appeared without the order estimate as ${I}_{x}(a,b)\sim \frac{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(a+b\right)}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(a\right)}{\sum}_{k=0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{d}_{k}{F}_{k}$.
Reported 20160830 by Xinrong Ma.
 Equation (17.9.2)

17.9.2 ${}_{2}\varphi _{1}({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{{q}^{n},b}{c}};q,z)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{(c/b;q)}_{n}}{{(c;q)}_{n}}}{b}^{n}{}_{3}\varphi _{1}({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{{q}^{n},b,q/z}{b{q}^{1n}/c}};q,z/c)$ The entry $q/c$ in the first row of ${}_{3}\varphi _{1}(\genfrac{}{}{0pt}{}{{q}^{n},b,q/c}{b{q}^{1n}/c};q,z/c)$ was replaced by $q/z$.
Reported 20160830 by Xinrong Ma.
 Figures 36.3.9, 36.3.10, 36.3.11, 36.3.12

Scales were corrected in all figures. The interval $8.4\le \frac{xy}{\sqrt{2}}\le 8.4$ was replaced by $12.0\le \frac{xy}{\sqrt{2}}\le 12.0$ and $12.7\le \frac{x+y}{\sqrt{2}}\le 4.2$ replaced by $18.0\le \frac{x+y}{\sqrt{2}}\le 6.0$. All plots and interactive visualizations were regenerated to improve image quality.
(a) Density plot. (b) 3D plot.
Figure 36.3.9: Modulus of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral function ${\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,0\right)$.
(a) Density plot. (b) 3D plot.
Figure 36.3.10: Modulus of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral function ${\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,1\right)$.
(a) Density plot. (b) 3D plot.
Figure 36.3.11: Modulus of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral function ${\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,2\right)$.
(a) Density plot. (b) 3D plot.
Figure 36.3.12: Modulus of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral function ${\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,3\right)$.
Reported 20160912 by Dan Piponi.
 Figures 36.3.18, 36.3.19, 36.3.20, 36.3.21

The scaling error reported on 20160912 by Dan Piponi also applied to contour and density plots for the phase of the hyperbolic umbilic canonical integrals. Scales were corrected in all figures. The interval $8.4\le \frac{xy}{\sqrt{2}}\le 8.4$ was replaced by $12.0\le \frac{xy}{\sqrt{2}}\le 12.0$ and $12.7\le \frac{x+y}{\sqrt{2}}\le 4.2$ replaced by $18.0\le \frac{x+y}{\sqrt{2}}\le 6.0$. All plots and interactive visualizations were regenerated to improve image quality.
(a) Contour plot. (b) Density plot.
Figure 36.3.18: Phase of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral $\mathrm{ph}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,0\right)$.
(a) Contour plot. (b) Density plot.
Figure 36.3.19: Phase of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral $\mathrm{ph}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,1\right)$.
(a) Contour plot. (b) Density plot.
Figure 36.3.20: Phase of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral $\mathrm{ph}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,2\right)$.
(a) Contour plot. (b) Density plot.
Figure 36.3.21: Phase of hyperbolic umbilic canonical integral $\mathrm{ph}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}\left(x,y,3\right)$.
Reported 20160928.
 Other Changes


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A number of changes were made with regard to fractional integrals and derivatives. In §1.15(vi) a reference to Miller and Ross (1993) was added, the fractional integral operator of order $\alpha $ was more precisely identified as the RiemannLiouville fractional integral operator of order $\alpha $, and a paragraph was added below (1.15.50) to generalize (1.15.47). In §1.15(vii) the sentence defining the fractional derivative was clarified. In §2.6(iii) the identification of the RiemannLiouville fractional integral operator was made consistent with §1.15(vi).

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Changes to §8.18(ii)–§8.11(v): A sentence was added in §8.18(ii) to refer to Nemes and Olde Daalhuis (2016). Originally §8.11(iii) was applicable for real variables $a$ and $x=\lambda a$. It has been extended to allow for complex variables $a$ and $z=\lambda a$ (and we have replaced $x$ with $z$ in the subsection heading and in Equations (8.11.6) and (8.11.7)). Also, we have added two paragraphs after (8.11.9) to replace the original paragraph that appeared there. Furthermore, the interval of validity of (8.11.6) was increased from $$ to the sector $$, and the interval of validity of (8.11.7) was increased from $\lambda >1$ to the sector $\lambda >1$, $\mathrm{ph}a\le \frac{3\pi}{2}\delta $. A paragraph with reference to Nemes (2016) has been added in §8.11(v), and the sector of validity for (8.11.12) was increased from $\mathrm{ph}z\le \pi \delta $ to $\mathrm{ph}z\le 2\pi \delta $. Two new Subsections 13.6(vii), 13.18(vi), both entitled Coulomb Functions, were added to note the relationship of the Kummer and Whittaker functions to various forms of the Coulomb functions. A sentence was added in both §13.10(vi) and §13.23(v) noting that certain generalized orthogonality can be expressed in terms of Kummer functions.

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Four of the terms in (14.15.23) were rewritten for improved clarity.
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In applying changes in Version 1.0.12 to (16.15.3), an editing error was made; it has been corrected.
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Meta.Numerics (website) was added to the Software Index.

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Version 1.0.13 (September 16, 2016)
 Other Changes


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In applying changes in Version 1.0.12 to (13.9.16), an editing error was made; it has been corrected.

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Version 1.0.12 (September 9, 2016)
 Equations (25.11.6), (25.11.19), and (25.11.20)

Originally all six integrands in these equations were incorrect because their numerators contained the function ${\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right)$. The correct function is $\frac{{\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}}{2}$. The new equations are:
25.11.6 $$\zeta (s,a)=\frac{1}{{a}^{s}}\left(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{a}{s1}\right)\frac{s(s+1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{{\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx,$$ $s\ne 1$, $\mathrm{\Re}s>1$, $a>0$ Reported 20160508 by Clemens Heuberger.
25.11.19 $${\zeta}^{\prime}(s,a)=\begin{array}{l}\frac{\mathrm{ln}a}{{a}^{s}}\left(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{a}{s1}\right)\frac{{a}^{1s}}{{(s1)}^{2}}+\frac{s(s+1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{({\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2})\mathrm{ln}\left(x+a\right)}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\frac{(2s+1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{{\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx,\end{array}$$ $\mathrm{\Re}s>1$, $s\ne 1$, $a>0$ Reported 20160627 by Gergő Nemes.
25.11.20 $${(1)}^{k}{\zeta}^{(k)}(s,a)=\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{l}\begin{array}{l}\frac{{(\mathrm{ln}a)}^{k}}{{a}^{s}}\left(\frac{1}{2}+\frac{a}{s1}\right)+k!{a}^{1s}\sum _{r=0}^{k1}\frac{{(\mathrm{ln}a)}^{r}}{r!{(s1)}^{kr+1}}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\frac{s(s+1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{({\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}){(\mathrm{ln}\left(x+a\right))}^{k}}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx\end{array}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}+\frac{k(2s+1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{({\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}){(\mathrm{ln}\left(x+a\right))}^{k1}}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx\end{array}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\frac{k(k1)}{2}{\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}\frac{({\stackrel{~}{B}}_{2}\left(x\right){B}_{2}){(\mathrm{ln}\left(x+a\right))}^{k2}}{{(x+a)}^{s+2}}dx,\end{array}$$ $\mathrm{\Re}s>1$, $s\ne 1$, $a>0$ Reported 20160627 by Gergő Nemes.
 Other Changes


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The symbol $\sim $ is used for two purposes in the DLMF, in some cases for asymptotic equality and in other cases for asymptotic expansion, but links to the appropriate definitions were not provided. In this release changes have been made to provide these links.
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Because (2.11.4) is not an asymptotic expansion, the symbol $\sim $ that was used originally is incorrect and has been replaced with $\approx $, together with a slight change of wording.

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Originally (13.9.16) was expressed in term of asymptotic symbol $\sim $. As a consequence of the use of the $O$ order symbol on the right hand side, $\sim $ was replaced by $=$.
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Originally (14.15.23) used $f(x)$ to represent both $U(c,x)$ and $\overline{U}(c,x)$. This has been replaced by two equations giving explicit definitions for the two envelope functions. Some slight changes in wording were needed to make this clear to readers.

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The title for §17.9 was changed from Transformations of Higher ${}_{r}\varphi _{r}$ Functions to Further Transformations of ${}_{r\mathrm{+}\mathrm{1}}\varphi _{r}$ Functions.

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A number of additions and changes have been made to the metadata in Chapter 25 Zeta and Related Functions to reflect new and changed references as well as to how some equations have been derived.
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Version 1.0.11 (June 8, 2016)
 Figure 4.3.1

This figure was rescaled, with symmetry lines added, to make evident the symmetry due to the inverse relationship between the two functions.
Reported 20151112 by James W. Pitman.
 Equation (9.7.17)

Originally the constraint, $$, was written incorrectly as $\frac{2}{3}\pi \le \mathrm{ph}z\le \pi $. Also, the equation was reformatted to display the constraints in the equation instead of in the text.
Reported 20141105 by Gergő Nemes.
 Equation (10.32.13)

Originally the constraint, $$, was incorrectly written as, $$.
Reported 20150520 by Richard Paris.
 Equation (10.40.12)

Originally the third constraint $$ was incorrectly written as $\pi \le \mathrm{ph}z\le \frac{3}{2}\pi $.
Reported 20141105 by Gergő Nemes.
 Equation (23.18.7)

23.18.7 $s(d,c)$ $={\displaystyle \sum _{r=1}^{c1}}{\displaystyle \frac{r}{c}}\left({\displaystyle \frac{dr}{c}}\lfloor {\displaystyle \frac{dr}{c}}\rfloor {\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}}\right),$ $c>0$ Originally the sum ${\sum}_{r=1}^{c1}$ was written with an additional condition on the summation, that $\left(r,c\right)=1$. This additional condition was incorrect and has been removed.
Reported 20151005 by Howard Cohl and Tanay Wakhare.
 Equations (28.28.21) and (28.28.22)

28.28.21 $\frac{4}{\pi}}{\displaystyle {\int}_{0}^{\pi /2}}{\mathcal{C}}_{2\mathrm{\ell}+1}^{(j)}(2hR)\mathrm{cos}\left((2\mathrm{\ell}+1)\varphi \right){\mathrm{ce}}_{2m+1}(t,{h}^{2})dt$ $={(1)}^{\mathrm{\ell}+m}{A}_{2\mathrm{\ell}+1}^{2m+1}({h}^{2}){\mathrm{Mc}}_{2m+1}^{(j)}(z,h)$ 28.28.22 $\frac{4}{\pi}}{\displaystyle {\int}_{0}^{\pi /2}}{\mathcal{C}}_{2\mathrm{\ell}+1}^{(j)}(2hR)\mathrm{sin}\left((2\mathrm{\ell}+1)\varphi \right){\mathrm{se}}_{2m+1}(t,{h}^{2})dt$ $={(1)}^{\mathrm{\ell}+m}{B}_{2\mathrm{\ell}+1}^{2m+1}({h}^{2}){\mathrm{Ms}}_{2m+1}^{(j)}(z,h),$ Originally the prefactor $\frac{4}{\pi}$ and upper limit of integration $\pi /2$ in these two equations were given incorrectly as $\frac{2}{\pi}$ and $\pi $.
Reported 20150520 by Ruslan Kabasayev
 Other Changes

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It was reported by Nico Temme on 20150228 that the asymptotic formula for $\mathrm{Ln}\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(z+h\right)$ given in (5.11.8) is valid for $h$ $(\in \u2102)$; originally it was unnecessarily restricted to $[0,1]$.

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In §13.8(iii), a new paragraph with several new equations and a new reference has been added at the end to provide asymptotic expansions for Kummer functions $U(a,b,z)$ and $\mathbf{M}(a,b,z)$ as $a\to \mathrm{\infty}$ in $\mathrm{ph}a\le \pi \delta $ and $b$ and $z$ fixed.

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Because of the use of the $O$ order symbol on the righthand side, the asymptotic expansion (18.15.22) for the generalized Laguerre polynomial ${L}_{n}^{(\alpha )}\left(\nu x\right)$ was rewritten as an equality.

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The entire Section 27.20 was replaced.

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Bibliographic citations have been added or modified in §§2.4(v), 2.4(vi), 2.9(iii), 5.11(i), 5.11(ii), 5.17, 9.9(i), 10.22(v), 10.37, 11.6(iii), 11.9(iii), 12.9(i), 13.8(ii), 13.11, 14.15(i), 14.15(iii), 15.12(iii), 15.14, 16.11(ii), 16.13, 18.15(vi), 20.7(viii), 24.11, 24.16(i), 26.8(vii), 33.12(i), and 33.12(ii).
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Version 1.0.10 (August 7, 2015)
 Section 4.43

The first paragraph has been rewritten to correct reported errors. The new version is reproduced here.
Let $p$ $(\ne 0)$ and $q$ be real constants and
4.43.1 $A$ $={\left(\frac{4}{3}p\right)}^{1/2},$ $B$ $={\left(\frac{4}{3}p\right)}^{1/2}.$ The roots of
4.43.2 $${z}^{3}+pz+q=0$$ are:

(a)
$A\mathrm{sin}a$, $A\mathrm{sin}\left(a+\frac{2}{3}\pi \right)$, and $A\mathrm{sin}\left(a+\frac{4}{3}\pi \right)$, with $\mathrm{sin}\left(3a\right)=4q/{A}^{3}$, when $4{p}^{3}+27{q}^{2}\le 0$.

(b)
$A\mathrm{cosh}a$, $A\mathrm{cosh}\left(a+\frac{2}{3}\pi \mathrm{i}\right)$, and $A\mathrm{cosh}\left(a+\frac{4}{3}\pi \mathrm{i}\right)$, with $\mathrm{cosh}\left(3a\right)=4q/{A}^{3}$, when $$, $$, and $4{p}^{3}+27{q}^{2}>0$.

(c)
$B\mathrm{sinh}a$, $B\mathrm{sinh}\left(a+\frac{2}{3}\pi \mathrm{i}\right)$, and $B\mathrm{sinh}\left(a+\frac{4}{3}\pi \mathrm{i}\right)$, with $\mathrm{sinh}\left(3a\right)=4q/{B}^{3}$, when $p>0$.
Note that in Case (a) all the roots are real, whereas in Cases (b) and (c) there is one real root and a conjugate pair of complex roots. See also §1.11(iii).
Reported 20141031 by Masataka Urago.

(a)
 Equation (9.10.18)

9.10.18 $\mathrm{Ai}\left(z\right)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{3{z}^{5/4}{\mathrm{e}}^{(2/3){z}^{3/2}}}{4\pi}}{\displaystyle {\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{t}^{3/4}{\mathrm{e}}^{(2/3){t}^{3/2}}\mathrm{Ai}\left(t\right)}{{z}^{3/2}+{t}^{3/2}}}dt$ The original equation taken from Schulten et al. (1979) was incorrect.
Reported 20150320 by Walter Gautschi.
 Equation (9.10.19)

9.10.19 $\mathrm{Bi}\left(x\right)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{3{x}^{5/4}{\mathrm{e}}^{(2/3){x}^{3/2}}}{2\pi}}{\displaystyle {\u2a0d}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{t}^{3/4}{\mathrm{e}}^{(2/3){t}^{3/2}}\mathrm{Ai}\left(t\right)}{{x}^{3/2}{t}^{3/2}}}dt$ The original equation taken from Schulten et al. (1979) was incorrect.
Reported 20150320 by Walter Gautschi.
 Equation (10.17.14)

10.17.14 $\left{R}_{\mathrm{\ell}}^{\pm}(\nu ,z)\right$ $\le 2{a}_{\mathrm{\ell}}(\nu ){\mathcal{V}}_{z,\pm \mathrm{i}\mathrm{\infty}}\left({t}^{\mathrm{\ell}}\right)\mathrm{exp}\left({\nu}^{2}\frac{1}{4}{\mathcal{V}}_{z,\pm \mathrm{i}\mathrm{\infty}}\left({t}^{1}\right)\right)$ Originally the factor ${\mathcal{V}}_{z,\pm \mathrm{i}\mathrm{\infty}}\left({t}^{1}\right)$ in the argument to the exponential was written incorrectly as ${\mathcal{V}}_{z,\pm \mathrm{i}\mathrm{\infty}}\left({t}^{\mathrm{\ell}}\right)$.
Reported 20140927 by Gergő Nemes.
 Equation (10.19.11)

10.19.11 ${Q}_{3}\left(a\right)$ $=\frac{549}{28000}{a}^{8}\frac{\mathrm{1\hspace{0.33em}10767}}{\mathrm{6\hspace{0.33em}93000}}{a}^{5}+\frac{79}{12375}{a}^{2}$ Originally the first term on the righthand side of this equation was written incorrectly as $\frac{549}{28000}{a}^{8}$.
Reported 20150316 by Svante Janson.
 Equation (13.2.7)

13.2.7 $U(m,b,z)$ $={(1)}^{m}{\left(b\right)}_{m}M(m,b,z)={(1)}^{m}{\displaystyle \sum _{s=0}^{m}}\left({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{m}{s}}\right){\left(b+s\right)}_{ms}{(z)}^{s}$ The equality $U(m,b,z)={(1)}^{m}{\left(b\right)}_{m}M(m,b,z)$ has been added to the original equation to express an explicit connection between the two standard solutions of Kummer’s equation. Note also that the notation $a=n$ has been changed to $a=m$.
Reported 20150210 by Adri Olde Daalhuis.
 Equation (13.2.8)

13.2.8 $U(a,a+n+1,z)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{(1)}^{n}{\left(1an\right)}_{n}}{{z}^{a+n}}}M(n,1an,z)={z}^{a}{\displaystyle \sum _{s=0}^{n}}\left({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{n}{s}}\right){\left(a\right)}_{s}{z}^{s}$ The equality $U(a,a+n+1,z)=\frac{{(1)}^{n}{\left(1an\right)}_{n}}{{z}^{a+n}}M(n,1an,z)$ has been added to the original equation to express an explicit connection between the two standard solutions of Kummer’s equation.
Reported 20150210 by Adri Olde Daalhuis.
 Equation (13.2.10)

13.2.10 $U(m,n+1,z)$ $={(1)}^{m}{\left(n+1\right)}_{m}M(m,n+1,z)={(1)}^{m}{\displaystyle \sum _{s=0}^{m}}\left({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{m}{s}}\right){\left(n+s+1\right)}_{ms}{(z)}^{s}$ The equality $U(m,n+1,z)={(1)}^{m}{\left(n+1\right)}_{m}M(m,n+1,z)$ has been added to the original equation to express an explicit connection between the two standard solutions of Kummer’s equation. Note also that the notation $a=m,m=0,1,2,\mathrm{\dots}$ has been introduced.
Reported 20150210 by Adri Olde Daalhuis.
 Equation (18.33.3)

18.33.3 ${\varphi}_{n}^{*}(z)$ $={z}^{n}\overline{{\varphi}_{n}({\overline{z}}^{1})}={\kappa}_{n}+{\displaystyle \sum _{\mathrm{\ell}=1}^{n}}{\overline{\kappa}}_{n,n\mathrm{\ell}}{z}^{\mathrm{\ell}}$ Originally this equation was written incorrectly as ${\varphi}_{n}^{*}(z)={\kappa}_{n}{z}^{n}+{\sum}_{\mathrm{\ell}=1}^{n}{\overline{\kappa}}_{n,n\mathrm{\ell}}{z}^{n\mathrm{\ell}}$. Also, the equality ${\varphi}_{n}^{*}(z)={z}^{n}\overline{{\varphi}_{n}({\overline{z}}^{1})}$ has been added.
Reported 20141003 by Roderick Wong.
 Equation (34.7.4)

34.7.4 $\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{13}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{23}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{33}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{13}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{23}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{33}\hfill \end{array}\right)\left\{\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{11}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{12}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{13}\hfill \\ \hfill {j}_{21}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{22}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{23}\hfill \\ \hfill {j}_{31}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{32}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{33}\hfill \end{array}\right\}$ $={\displaystyle \sum _{{m}_{r1},{m}_{r2},r=1,2,3}}\begin{array}{l}\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{11}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{12}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{13}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{11}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{12}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{13}\hfill \end{array}\right)\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{21}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{22}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{23}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{21}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{22}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{23}\hfill \end{array}\right)\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{31}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{32}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{33}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{31}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{32}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{33}\hfill \end{array}\right)\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\times \left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{11}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{21}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{31}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{11}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{21}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{31}\hfill \end{array}\right)\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{12}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{22}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{32}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{12}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{22}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{32}\hfill \end{array}\right)\end{array}$ Originally the third $\mathit{3}j$ symbol in the summation was written incorrectly as $\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{31}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{32}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{33}\hfill \\ \hfill {m}_{13}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{23}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{33}\hfill \end{array}\right).$
Reported 20150119 by YanRui Liu.
 Other Changes


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To increase the regions of validity (5.9.10), (5.9.11), (5.10.1), (5.11.1), and (5.11.8), the logarithms of the gamma function that appears on their lefthand sides have all been changed to $\mathrm{Ln}\mathrm{\Gamma}(\cdot )$, where $\mathrm{Ln}$ is the general logarithm. Originally $\mathrm{ln}\mathrm{\Gamma}(\cdot )$ was used, where $\mathrm{ln}$ is the principal branch of the logarithm. These changes were recommended by Philippe Spindel on 20150206.
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A note was added after (22.20.5) to deal with cases when computation of $\mathrm{dn}(x,k)$ becomes numerically unstable near $x=K$.

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The spelling of the name Delannoy was corrected in several places in §26.6. Previously it was mispelled as Dellanoy.

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For consistency of notation across all chapters, the notation for logarithm has been changed to $\mathrm{ln}$ from $\mathrm{log}$ throughout Chapter 27.

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Bibliographic citations have been added or modified in §§2.4(vi), 3.8(v), 5.6(i), 5.10, 5.11(i), 5.11(ii), 5.18(ii), 7.21, 8.10, 10.21(ix), 10.45, 10.74(vi), 11.7(v), 13.7(iii), 14.17(iii), 14.20(ix), 14.28(ii), 14.32, 15.8(v), 15.13, 15.19(i), 16.6, 16.13, 17.6(ii), 17.7(iii), 18.1(iii), 18.3, 18.15(iv) and 18.24.

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Version 1.0.9 (August 29, 2014)
 Equation (9.6.26)

9.6.26 ${\mathrm{Bi}}^{\prime}\left(z\right)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{3}^{1/6}}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\frac{1}{3}\right)}}{\mathrm{e}}^{\zeta}{}_{1}F_{1}(\frac{1}{6};\frac{1}{3};2\zeta )+{\displaystyle \frac{{3}^{7/6}}{{2}^{7/3}\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\frac{2}{3}\right)}}{\zeta}^{4/3}{\mathrm{e}}^{\zeta}{}_{1}F_{1}(\frac{7}{6};\frac{7}{3};2\zeta )$ Originally the second occurrence of the function ${}_{1}F_{1}$ was given incorrectly as ${}_{1}F_{1}(\frac{7}{6};\frac{7}{3};\zeta )$.
Reported 20140521 by Hanyou Chu.
 Equation (22.19.6)

22.19.6 $x(t)$ $=\mathrm{cn}(t\sqrt{1+2\eta},k)$ Originally the term $\sqrt{1+2\eta}$ was given incorrectly as $\sqrt{1+\eta}$ in this equation and in the line above. Additionally, for improved clarity, the modulus $k=1/\sqrt{2+{\eta}^{1}}$ has been defined in the line above.
Reported 20140502 by Svante Janson.
 Paragraph Case III: $V\mathbf{}\mathbf{(}x\mathbf{)}\mathbf{=}\mathbf{}\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{2}}\mathbf{}{x}^{\mathbf{2}}\mathbf{+}\frac{\mathbf{1}}{\mathbf{4}}\mathbf{}\beta \mathbf{}{x}^{\mathbf{4}}$ in §22.19(ii)

Two corrections have been made in this paragraph. First, the correct range of the initial displacement $a$ is $$. Previously it was $\sqrt{1/\beta}\le a\le \sqrt{2/\beta}$. Second, the correct period of the oscillations is $2K\left(k\right)/\sqrt{\eta}$. Previously it was given incorrectly as $4K\left(k\right)/\sqrt{\eta}$.
Reported 20140502 by Svante Janson.
 Equation (34.3.7)

34.3.7 $\left(\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{1}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{2}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{3}\hfill \\ \hfill {j}_{1}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{1}{m}_{3}\hfill & \hfill {m}_{3}\hfill \end{array}\right)$ $={(1)}^{{j}_{1}{j}_{2}{m}_{3}}{\left({\displaystyle \frac{(2{j}_{1})!({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}+{j}_{3})!({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}+{m}_{3})!({j}_{3}{m}_{3})!}{({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}+{j}_{3}+1)!({j}_{1}{j}_{2}+{j}_{3})!({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}{j}_{3})!({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}{m}_{3})!({j}_{3}+{m}_{3})!}}\right)}^{\frac{1}{2}}$ In the original equation the prefactor of the above 3j symbol read ${(1)}^{{j}_{2}+{j}_{3}+{m}_{3}}$. It is now replaced by its correct value ${(1)}^{{j}_{1}{j}_{2}{m}_{3}}$.
Reported 20140612 by James Zibin.
 Other Changes

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The Wronskian (14.2.7) was generalized to include both associated Legendre and Ferrers functions.

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A crossreference has been added in §15.9(iv).
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An addition was made to the Software Index to reflect a multiple precision (MP) package written in C++ which uses a variety of different MP interfaces. See Kormanyos (2011).
Version 1.0.8 (April 25, 2014)
 Equation (22.19.2)

22.19.2 $\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{1}{2}\theta (t)\right)$ $=\mathrm{sin}\left({\displaystyle \frac{1}{2}}\alpha \right)\mathrm{sn}(t+K,\mathrm{sin}\left(\frac{1}{2}\alpha \right))$ Originally the first argument to the function $\mathrm{sn}$ was given incorrectly as $t$. The correct argument is $t+K$.
Reported 20140305 by Svante Janson.
 Equation (22.19.3)

22.19.3 $\theta (t)$ $=2\mathrm{am}(t\sqrt{E/2},\sqrt{2/E})$ Originally the first argument to the function $\mathrm{am}$ was given incorrectly as $t$. The correct argument is $t\sqrt{E/2}$.
Reported 20140305 by Svante Janson.
 Other Changes

Version 1.0.7 (March 21, 2014)
 Table 3.5.19

The correct headings for the second and third columns of this table are ${J}_{0}\left(t\right)$ and $g(t)$, respectively. Previously these columns were mislabeled as $g(t)$ and ${J}_{0}\left(t\right)$.
$t$ ${J}_{0}(t)$ $g(t)$ 0.0 1.00000 00000 1.00000 00000 0.5 0.93846 98072 0.93846 98072 1.0 0.76519 76866 0.76519 76865 2.0 0.22389 07791 0.22389 10326 5.0 $$0.17759 67713 $$0.17902 54097 10.0 $$0.24593 57645 $$0.07540 53543 Reported 20140131 by Masataka Urago.
 Table 3.5.21

The correct corner coordinates for the 9point square, given on the last line of this table, are $(\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h,\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h)$. Originally they were given incorrectly as $(\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h,0)$, $(\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h,0)$.
Diagram $({x}_{j},{y}_{j})$ ${w}_{j}$ $R$ ⋮ $(0,0)$ $\frac{16}{81}$ $O\left({h}^{6}\right)$ $(\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h,0)$, $(0,\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h)$ $\frac{10}{81}$ $(\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h,\pm \sqrt{\frac{3}{5}}h)$ $\frac{25}{324}$ Reported 20140113 by Stanley Oleszczuk.
 Equation (4.21.1)

4.21.1 $\mathrm{sin}u\pm \mathrm{cos}u$ $=\sqrt{2}\mathrm{sin}\left(u\pm \frac{1}{4}\pi \right)=\pm \sqrt{2}\mathrm{cos}\left(u\mp \frac{1}{4}\pi \right)$ Originally the symbol $\pm $ was missing after the second equal sign.
Reported 20120927 by Dennis Heim.
 Equations (4.23.34) and (4.23.35)

4.23.34 $\mathrm{arcsin}z$ $=\mathrm{arcsin}\beta +\mathrm{i}\mathrm{sign}\left(y\right)\mathrm{ln}\left(\alpha +{({\alpha}^{2}1)}^{1/2}\right)$ and
4.23.35 $\mathrm{arccos}z$ $=\mathrm{arccos}\beta \mathrm{i}\mathrm{sign}\left(y\right)\mathrm{ln}\left(\alpha +{({\alpha}^{2}1)}^{1/2}\right)$ Originally the factor $\mathrm{sign}\left(y\right)$ was missing from the second term on the right sides of these equations. Additionally, the condition for the validity of these equations has been weakened.
Reported 20130701 by Volker Thürey.
 Equation (5.17.5)

5.17.5 $\mathrm{Ln}G\left(z+1\right)$ $\sim \frac{1}{4}{z}^{2}+z\mathrm{Ln}\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(z+1\right)\left(\frac{1}{2}z(z+1)+\frac{1}{12}\right)\mathrm{Ln}z\mathrm{ln}A+{\displaystyle \sum _{k=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{B}_{2k+2}}{2k(2k+1)(2k+2){z}^{2k}}}$ Originally the term $z\mathrm{Ln}\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(z+1\right)$ was incorrectly stated as $z\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(z+1\right)$.
Reported 20130801 by Gergő Nemes and subsequently by Nick Jones on December 11, 2013.
 Table 22.4.3

Originally a minus sign was missing in the entries for $\mathrm{cd}u$ and $\mathrm{dc}u$ in the second column (headed $z+K+i{K}^{\prime}$). The correct entries are ${k}^{1}\mathrm{ns}z$ and $k\mathrm{sn}z$. Note: These entries appear online but not in the published print edition. More specifically, Table 22.4.3 in the published print edition is restricted to the three Jacobian elliptic functions $\mathrm{sn},\mathrm{cn},\mathrm{dn}$, whereas Table 22.4.3 covers all 12 Jacobian elliptic functions.
$u$ $z+K$ $z+K+\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime}$ $z+\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime}$ $z+2K$ $z+2K+2\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime}$ $z+2\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime}$ $\mathrm{\vdots}$ $\mathrm{cd}u$ $\mathrm{sn}z$ ${k}^{1}\mathrm{ns}z$ ${k}^{1}\mathrm{dc}z$ $\mathrm{cd}z$ $\mathrm{cd}z$ $\mathrm{cd}z$ $\mathrm{\vdots}$ $\mathrm{dc}u$ $\mathrm{ns}z$ $k\mathrm{sn}z$ $k\mathrm{cd}z$ $\mathrm{dc}z$ $\mathrm{dc}z$ $\mathrm{dc}z$ $\mathrm{\vdots}$ Reported 20140228 by Svante Janson.
 Table 22.5.2

The entry for $\mathrm{sn}z$ at $z=\frac{3}{2}(K+\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime})$ has been corrected. The correct entry is $(1+\mathrm{i})({(1+{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2}\mathrm{i}{(1{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2})/(2{k}^{1/2})$. Originally the terms ${(1+{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2}$ and ${(1{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2}$ were given incorrectly as ${(1+k)}^{1/2}$ and ${(1k)}^{1/2}$.
Similarly, the entry for $\mathrm{dn}z$ at $z=\frac{3}{2}(K+\mathrm{i}{K}^{\prime})$ has been corrected. The correct entry is $(1+\mathrm{i})k^{\prime}{}^{1/2}({(1+k)}^{1/2}+i{(1k)}^{1/2})/2$. Originally the terms ${(1+k)}^{1/2}$ and ${(1k)}^{1/2}$ were given incorrectly as ${(1+{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2}$ and ${(1{k}^{\prime})}^{1/2}$
Reported 20140228 by Svante Janson.
 Equation (22.6.7)

22.6.7 $\mathrm{dn}(2z,k)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{{\mathrm{dn}}^{2}(z,k){k}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{2}(z,k){\mathrm{cn}}^{2}(z,k)}{1{k}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{4}(z,k)}}={\displaystyle \frac{{\mathrm{dn}}^{4}(z,k)+{k}^{2}k^{\prime}{}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{4}(z,k)}{1{k}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{4}(z,k)}}$ Originally the term ${k}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{2}(z,k){\mathrm{cn}}^{2}(z,k)$ was given incorrectly as ${k}^{2}{\mathrm{sn}}^{2}(z,k){\mathrm{dn}}^{2}(z,k)$.
Reported 20140228 by Svante Janson.
 Table 26.8.1

Originally the Stirling number $s(10,6)$ was given incorrectly as 6327. The correct number is 63273.
$n$ $k$ $0$ $1$ $2$ $3$ $4$ $5$ $6$ $7$ $8$ $9$ $10$ 10 $0$ $\mathrm{3\hspace{0.17em}62880}$ $\mathrm{10\hspace{0.17em}26576}$ $\mathrm{11\hspace{0.17em}72700}$ $\mathrm{7\hspace{0.17em}23680}$ $\mathrm{2\hspace{0.17em}69325}$ $63273$ $9450$ $870$ $45$ $1$ Reported 20131125 by Svante Janson.
 Equation (31.8.5)

31.8.5 ${\mathrm{\Psi}}_{1,1}$ $=\left({z}^{2}+(\lambda +3a+3)z+a\right)/{z}^{3}$ Originally the first term on the right side of the equation for ${\mathrm{\Psi}}_{1,1}$ was ${z}^{3}$. The correct factor is ${z}^{2}$.
Reported 20130725 by Christopher Künstler.
 Equation (31.12.3)

31.12.3 $\frac{{d}^{2}w}{{dz}^{2}}}\left({\displaystyle \frac{\gamma}{z}}+\delta +z\right){\displaystyle \frac{dw}{dz}}+{\displaystyle \frac{\alpha zq}{z}}w$ $=0$ Originally the sign in front of the second term in this equation was $+$. The correct sign is $$.
Reported 20131031 by Henryk Witek.
 Equation (34.4.2)

34.4.2 $\left\{\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {j}_{1}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{2}\hfill & \hfill {j}_{3}\hfill \\ \hfill {l}_{1}\hfill & \hfill {l}_{2}\hfill & \hfill {l}_{3}\hfill \end{array}\right\}$ $=\begin{array}{l}\mathrm{\Delta}({j}_{1}{j}_{2}{j}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({j}_{1}{l}_{2}{l}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({l}_{1}{j}_{2}{l}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({l}_{1}{l}_{2}{j}_{3})\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\times {\displaystyle \sum _{s}}\begin{array}{l}{\displaystyle \frac{{(1)}^{s}(s+1)!}{(s{j}_{1}{j}_{2}{j}_{3})!(s{j}_{1}{l}_{2}{l}_{3})!(s{l}_{1}{j}_{2}{l}_{3})!(s{l}_{1}{l}_{2}{j}_{3})!}}\\ \phantom{\rule{2em}{0ex}}\times {\displaystyle \frac{1}{({j}_{1}+{j}_{2}+{l}_{1}+{l}_{2}s)!({j}_{2}+{j}_{3}+{l}_{2}+{l}_{3}s)!({j}_{3}+{j}_{1}+{l}_{3}+{l}_{1}s)!}}\end{array}\end{array}$ Originally the factor $\mathrm{\Delta}({j}_{1}{j}_{2}{j}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({j}_{1}{l}_{2}{l}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({l}_{1}{j}_{2}{l}_{3})\mathrm{\Delta}({l}_{1}{l}_{2}{j}_{3})$ was missing in this equation.
Reported 20121231 by Yu Lin.
 Other Changes

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A new Subsection 13.29(v) Continued Fractions, has been added to cover computation of confluent hypergeometric functions by continued fractions.
 •

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Subsection 14.18(iii) has been altered to identify Equations (14.18.6) and (14.18.7) as Christoffel’s Formulas.

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A new Subsection 15.19(v) Continued Fractions, has been added to cover computation of the Gauss hypergeometric functions by continued fractions.

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Special cases of normalization of Jacobi polynomials for which the general formula is undefined have been stated explicitly in Table 18.3.1.
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Crossreferences have been added in §§1.2(i), 10.19(iii), 10.23(ii), 17.2(iii), 18.15(iii), 19.2(iv), 19.16(i).
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Entries for the Sage computational system have been updated in the Software Index.

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The default document format for DLMF is now HTML5 which includes MathML providing better accessibility and display of mathematics.

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All interactive 3D graphics on the DLMF website have been recast using WebGL and X3DOM, improving portability and performance; WebGL it is now the default format.
Version 1.0.6 (May 6, 2013)
Several minor improvements were made affecting display and layout; primarily tracking changes to the underlying LaTeXML system.
Version 1.0.5 (October 1, 2012)
 Subsection 1.2(i)

The condition for (1.2.2), (1.2.4), and (1.2.5) was corrected. These equations are true only if $n$ is a positive integer. Previously $n$ was allowed to be zero.
Reported 20110810 by Michael Somos.
 Subsection 8.17(i)

The condition for the validity of (8.17.5) is that $m$ and $n$ are positive integers and $$. Previously, no conditions were stated.
Reported 20110323 by Stephen Bourn.
 Equation (10.20.14)

10.20.14 ${B}_{3}(0)$ $=\frac{\mathrm{959\hspace{0.33em}71711\hspace{0.33em}84603}}{\mathrm{25\hspace{0.33em}47666\hspace{0.33em}37125\hspace{0.33em}00000}}{2}^{\frac{1}{3}}$ Originally this coefficient was given incorrectly as ${B}_{3}(0)=\frac{\mathrm{430\hspace{0.33em}99056\hspace{0.33em}39368\hspace{0.33em}59253}}{\mathrm{5\hspace{0.33em}68167\hspace{0.33em}34399\hspace{0.33em}42500\hspace{0.33em}00000}}{2}^{\frac{1}{3}}$. The other coefficients in this equation have not been changed.
Reported 20120511 by Antony Lee.
 Equation (13.16.4)

The condition for the validity of this equation is $$. Originally it was given incorrectly as $\mathrm{\Re}(\kappa \mu )\frac{1}{2}>0$.
 Subsection 14.2(ii)

Originally it was stated, incorrectly, that ${Q}_{\nu}^{\mu}\left(x\right)$ is real when $\nu ,\mu \in \mathbb{R}$ and $x\in (1,\mathrm{\infty})$. This statement is true only for ${P}_{\nu}^{\mu}\left(x\right)$ and ${\mathit{Q}}_{\nu}^{\mu}\left(x\right)$.
Reported 20120718 by Hans Volkmer and Howard Cohl.
 Equation (21.3.4)

21.3.4 $\theta \left[{\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{\mathit{\alpha}+{\mathbf{m}}_{1}}{\mathit{\beta}+{\mathbf{m}}_{2}}}\right]\left(\mathbf{z}\right\mathbf{\Omega})$ $={\mathrm{e}}^{2\pi \mathrm{i}\mathit{\alpha}\cdot {\mathbf{m}}_{2}}\theta \left[{\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{\mathit{\alpha}}{\mathit{\beta}}}\right]\left(\mathbf{z}\right\mathbf{\Omega})$ Originally the vector ${\mathbf{m}}_{2}$ on the righthand side was given incorrectly as ${\mathbf{m}}_{1}$.
Reported 20120827 by Klaas Vantournhout.
 Subsection 21.10(i)

The entire original content of this subsection has been replaced by a reference.
 Figures 22.3.22 and 22.3.23

The captions for these figures have been corrected to read, in part, “as a function of ${k}^{2}=\mathrm{i}{\kappa}^{2}$” (instead of ${k}^{2}=\mathrm{i}\kappa $). Also, the resolution of the graph in Figure 22.3.22 was improved near $\kappa =3$.
Reported 20111030 by Paul Abbott.
 Equation (23.2.4)

23.2.4 $\mathrm{\wp}\left(z\right)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{1}{{z}^{2}}}+{\displaystyle \sum _{w\in \mathbb{L}\setminus \{0\}}}\left({\displaystyle \frac{1}{{(zw)}^{2}}}{\displaystyle \frac{1}{{w}^{2}}}\right)$ Originally the denominator ${(zw)}^{2}$ was given incorrectly as $(z{w}^{2})$.
Reported 20120216 by James D. Walker.
 Equation (24.4.26)

This equation is true only for $n>0$. Previously, $n=0$ was also allowed.Reported 20120514 by Vladimir Yurovsky.
 Equation (26.12.26)

26.12.26 $\mathrm{pp}\left(n\right)$ $\sim {\displaystyle \frac{{\left(\zeta \left(3\right)\right)}^{7/36}}{{2}^{11/36}{(3\pi )}^{1/2}{n}^{25/36}}}\mathrm{exp}\left(3{\left(\zeta \left(3\right)\right)}^{1/3}{\left(\frac{1}{2}n\right)}^{2/3}+{\zeta}^{\prime}\left(1\right)\right)$ Originally this equation was given incorrectly as
$$\mathrm{pp}\left(n\right)\sim {\left(\frac{\zeta \left(3\right)}{{2}^{11}{n}^{25}}\right)}^{1/36}\mathrm{exp}\left(3{\left(\frac{\zeta \left(3\right){n}^{2}}{4}\right)}^{1/3}+{\zeta}^{\prime}\left(1\right)\right).$$ Reported 20110905 by Suresh Govindarajan.
 Other Changes


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On August 24, 2012 Dr. Adri B. Olde Daalhuis was added as Mathematics Editor. This addition has been recorded at the end of the Preface.

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Bibliographic citations were added in §§5.5(iii), 5.6(i), 5.10, 5.21, 7.13(ii), 10.19(iii), 10.21(i), 10.21(iv), 10.21(xiii), 10.21(xiv), 10.42, 10.46, 10.74(vii), 13.8(ii), 13.9(i), 13.9(ii), 13.11, 13.29(iv), 14.11, 15.13, 15.19(i), 17.18, 18.16(ii), 18.16(iv), 18.26(v), 19.12, 19.36(iv), 20.7(i), 20.7(ii), 20.7(iii), 20.7(vii), 25.11(iv), 25.18(i), 26.12(iv), 28.24, 28.34(ii), 29.20(i), 31.17(ii), 32.17, and as a general reference in Chapter 3.

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A crossreference was added in §21.2(i).
 •
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Other minor changes were made in the bibliography and index.

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Version 1.0.4 (March 23, 2012)
Several minor improvements were made affecting display of math and graphics on the website; the software index and help files were updated.
Version 1.0.3 (Aug 29, 2011)
 Equation (13.18.7)

13.18.7 ${W}_{\frac{1}{4},\pm \frac{1}{4}}\left({z}^{2}\right)$ $={\mathrm{e}}^{\frac{1}{2}{z}^{2}}\sqrt{\pi z}\mathrm{erfc}\left(z\right)$ Originally the lefthand side was given correctly as ${W}_{\frac{1}{4},\frac{1}{4}}\left({z}^{2}\right)$; the equation is true also for ${W}_{\frac{1}{4},+\frac{1}{4}}\left({z}^{2}\right)$.
 Other Changes

Version 1.0.2 (July 1, 2011)
Several minor improvements were made affecting display on the website; the help files were revised.
Version 1.0.1 (June 27, 2011)
 Subsections 1.15(vi) and 1.15(vii)

The formulas in these subsections are valid only for $x\ge 0$. No conditions on $x$ were given originally.
Reported 20101018 by Andreas Kurt Richter.
 Figure 10.48.5

Originally the ordinate labels 2 and 4 in this figure were placed too high.
Reported 20101108 by Wolfgang Ehrhardt.
 Equation (14.19.2)

14.19.2 ${P}_{\nu \frac{1}{2}}^{\mu}\left(\mathrm{cosh}\xi \right)$ $={\displaystyle \frac{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\frac{1}{2}\mu \right)}{{\pi}^{1/2}{\left(1{\mathrm{e}}^{2\xi}\right)}^{\mu}{\mathrm{e}}^{(\nu +(1/2))\xi}}}\mathbf{F}(\frac{1}{2}\mu ,\frac{1}{2}+\nu \mu ;12\mu ;1{\mathrm{e}}^{2\xi}),$ $\mu \ne \frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{2},\frac{5}{2},\mathrm{\dots}$ Originally the argument to $\mathbf{F}$ in this equation was incorrect (${\mathrm{e}}^{2\xi}$, rather than $1{\mathrm{e}}^{2\xi}$), and the condition on $\mu $ was too weak ($\mu \ne \frac{1}{2}$, rather than $\mu \ne \frac{1}{2},\frac{3}{2},\frac{5}{2},\mathrm{\dots}$). Also, the factor multiplying $\mathbf{F}$ was rewritten to clarify the poles; originally it was $\frac{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(12\mu \right){2}^{2\mu}}{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(1\mu \right){\left(1{\mathrm{e}}^{2\xi}\right)}^{\mu}{\mathrm{e}}^{(\nu +(1/2))\xi}}$.
Reported 20101102 by Alvaro Valenzuela.
 Equation (17.13.3)

17.13.3 ${\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{\infty}}}{t}^{\alpha 1}{\displaystyle \frac{{(t{q}^{\alpha +\beta};q)}_{\mathrm{\infty}}}{{(t;q)}_{\mathrm{\infty}}}}dt$ $={\displaystyle \frac{\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(\alpha \right)\mathrm{\Gamma}\left(1\alpha \right){\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{q}\left(\beta \right)}{{\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{q}\left(1\alpha \right){\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{q}\left(\alpha +\beta \right)}}$ Originally the differential was identified incorrectly as ${d}_{q}t$; the correct differential is $dt$.
Reported 20110408.
 Table 18.9.1

The coefficient ${A}_{n}$ for ${C}_{n}^{(\lambda )}\left(x\right)$ in the first row of this table originally omitted the parentheses and was given as $\frac{2n+\lambda}{n+1}$, instead of $\frac{2(n+\lambda )}{n+1}$.
${p}_{n}(x)$ ${A}_{n}$ ${B}_{n}$ ${C}_{n}$ ${C}_{n}^{(\lambda )}\left(x\right)$ $\frac{2(n+\lambda )}{n+1}$ $0$ $\frac{n+2\lambda 1}{n+1}$ ⋮ Reported 20100916 by Kendall Atkinson.
 Subsection 19.16(iii)

Originally it was implied that ${R}_{C}(x,y)$ is an elliptic integral. It was clarified that ${R}_{a}(\mathbf{b};\mathbf{z})$ is an elliptic integral iff the stated conditions hold; originally these conditions were stated as sufficient but not necessary. In particular, ${R}_{C}(x,y)$ does not satisfy these conditions.
Reported 20101123.
 Table 22.5.4

Originally the limiting form for $\mathrm{sc}(z,k)$ in the last line of this table was incorrect ($\mathrm{cosh}z$, instead of $\mathrm{sinh}z$).
$\mathrm{sn}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{tanh}z$ $\mathrm{cd}(z,k)$$\to $ $1$ $\mathrm{dc}(z,k)$$\to $ $1$ $\mathrm{ns}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{coth}z$ $\mathrm{cn}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{sech}z$ $\mathrm{sd}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{sinh}z$ $\mathrm{nc}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{cosh}z$ $\mathrm{ds}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{csch}z$ $\mathrm{dn}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{sech}z$ $\mathrm{nd}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{cosh}z$ $\mathrm{sc}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{sinh}z$ $\mathrm{cs}(z,k)$$\to $ $\mathrm{csch}z$ Reported 20101123.
 Equation (22.16.14)

22.16.14 $\mathcal{E}(x,k)$ $={\displaystyle {\int}_{0}^{\mathrm{sn}(x,k)}}\sqrt{{\displaystyle \frac{1{k}^{2}{t}^{2}}{1{t}^{2}}}}dt$ Originally this equation appeared with the upper limit of integration as $x$, rather than $\mathrm{sn}(x,k)$.
Reported 20100708 by Charles Karney.
 Equation (26.7.6)

26.7.6 $B\left(n+1\right)$ $={\displaystyle \sum _{k=0}^{n}}\left({\displaystyle \genfrac{}{}{0.0pt}{}{n}{k}}\right)B\left(k\right)$ Originally this equation appeared with $B\left(n\right)$ in the summation, instead of $B\left(k\right)$.
Reported 20101107 by Layne Watson.
 Equation (36.10.14)

36.10.14 $3\left({\displaystyle \frac{{\partial}^{2}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{E})}}{{\partial x}^{2}}}{\displaystyle \frac{{\partial}^{2}{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{E})}}{{\partial y}^{2}}}\right)+2\mathrm{i}z{\displaystyle \frac{\partial {\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{E})}}{\partial x}}x{\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{E})}$ $=0$ Originally this equation appeared with $\frac{\partial {\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{H})}}{\partial x}$ in the second term, rather than $\frac{\partial {\mathrm{\Psi}}^{(\mathrm{E})}}{\partial x}$.
Reported 20100402.
 Other Changes


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The definition of the notation $F({z}_{0}{\mathrm{e}}^{2k\pi \mathrm{i}})$ was added in Common Notations and Definitions.
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The general references for each chapter were inserted under the isymbol on the chapter title pages. Originally these appeared only in the References sections of the individual chapters in the Handbook.

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The definition of ${R}_{C}(x,y)$ was revised in Notations.

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Additions and revisions were made in the Cross Index for Computing Special Functions.

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Version 1.0.0 (May 7, 2010)
The Handbook of Mathematical Functions was published, and the Digital Library of Mathematical Functions was released.