# critical phenomena

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## 1—10 of 29 matching pages

##### 1: 36.4 Bifurcation Sets

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###### §36.4(i) Formulas

►###### Critical Points for Cuspoids

… ►###### Critical Points for Umbilics

… ►This is the codimension-one surface in $\mathbf{x}$ space where critical points coalesce, satisfying (36.4.1) and … ►This is the codimension-one surface in $\mathbf{x}$ space where critical points coalesce, satisfying (36.4.2) and …##### 2: 19.35 Other Applications

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###### §19.35(ii) Physical

►Elliptic integrals appear in lattice models of critical phenomena (Guttmann and Prellberg (1993)); theories of layered materials (Parkinson (1969)); fluid dynamics (Kida (1981)); string theory (Arutyunov and Staudacher (2004)); astrophysics (Dexter and Agol (2009)). …##### 3: 15.18 Physical Applications

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►The hypergeometric function has allowed the development of “solvable” models for one-dimensional quantum scattering through and over barriers (Eckart (1930), Bhattacharjie and Sudarshan (1962)), and generalized to include position-dependent effective masses (Dekar et al. (1999)).
►More varied applications include photon scattering from atoms (Gavrila (1967)), energy distributions of particles in plasmas (Mace and Hellberg (1995)), conformal field theory of critical phenomena (Burkhardt and Xue (1991)), quantum chromo-dynamics (Atkinson and Johnson (1988)), and general parametrization of the effective potentials of interaction between atoms in diatomic molecules (Herrick and O’Connor (1998)).

##### 4: Sidebar 22.SB1: Decay of a Soliton in a Bose–Einstein Condensate

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►Jacobian elliptic functions arise as solutions to certain nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which model many types of wave propagation phenomena.
…This image presents the results of a computer simulation of this phenomena carried out at NIST.
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►For technical details of the physical phenomena, see B.
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##### 5: 25.10 Zeros

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###### §25.10(i) Distribution

… ►In the region $$, called the*critical strip*, $\zeta \left(s\right)$ has infinitely many zeros, distributed symmetrically about the real axis and about the*critical line*$\mathrm{\Re}s=\frac{1}{2}$. … ►Calculations relating to the zeros on the critical line make use of the real-valued function … ►Calculations based on the Riemann–Siegel formula reveal that the first ten billion zeros of $\zeta \left(s\right)$ in the critical strip are on the critical line (van de Lune et al. (1986)). More than 41% of all the zeros in the critical strip lie on the critical line (Bui et al. (2011)). …##### 6: 25.17 Physical Applications

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►Analogies exist between the distribution of the zeros of $\zeta \left(s\right)$ on the critical line and of semiclassical quantum eigenvalues.
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►The zeta function arises in the calculation of the partition function of ideal quantum gases (both Bose–Einstein and Fermi–Dirac cases), and it determines the critical gas temperature and density for the Bose–Einstein condensation phase transition in a dilute gas (Lifshitz and Pitaevskiĭ (1980)).
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##### 7: 25.18 Methods of Computation

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###### §25.18(ii) Zeros

►Most numerical calculations of the Riemann zeta function are concerned with locating zeros of $\zeta \left(\frac{1}{2}+\mathrm{i}t\right)$ in an effort to prove or disprove the Riemann hypothesis, which states that all nontrivial zeros of $\zeta \left(s\right)$ lie on the critical line $\mathrm{\Re}s=\frac{1}{2}$. Calculations to date (2008) have found no nontrivial zeros off the critical line. …##### 8: 36.12 Uniform Approximation of Integrals

###### §36.12 Uniform Approximation of Integrals

… ►Correspondence between the ${u}_{j}(\mathbf{y})$ and the ${t}_{j}(\mathbf{x})$ is established by the order of critical points along the real axis when $\mathbf{y}$ and $\mathbf{x}$ are such that these critical points are all real, and by continuation when some or all of the critical points are complex. …In (36.12.10), both second derivatives vanish when critical points coalesce, but their ratio remains finite. The square roots are real and positive when $\mathbf{y}$ is such that all the critical points are real, and are defined by analytic continuation elsewhere. … ►For $K=1$, with a single parameter $y$, let the two critical points of $f(u;y)$ be denoted by ${u}_{\pm}(y)$, with ${u}_{+}>{u}_{-}$ for those values of $y$ for which these critical points are real. …##### 9: 36.15 Methods of Computation

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►Direct numerical evaluation can be carried out along a contour that runs along the segment of the real $t$-axis containing all real critical points of $\mathrm{\Phi}$ and is deformed outside this range so as to reach infinity along the asymptotic valleys of $\mathrm{exp}\left(\mathrm{i}\mathrm{\Phi}\right)$.
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►This can be carried out by direct numerical evaluation of canonical integrals along a finite segment of the real axis including all real critical points of $\mathrm{\Phi}$, with contributions from the contour outside this range approximated by the first terms of an asymptotic series associated with the endpoints.
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##### 10: Foreword

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^{2}^{2}2 D. R. Lide (ed.),*A Century of Excellence in Measurement, Standards, and Technology*, CRC Press, 2001. The success of the original handbook, widely referred to as “Abramowitz and Stegun” (“A&S”), derived not only from the fact that it provided critically useful scientific data in a highly accessible format, but also because it served to standardize definitions and notations for special functions. …