# Catalan constant

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##### 1: 26.5 Lattice Paths: Catalan Numbers
###### §26.5(i) Definitions
$C\left(n\right)$ is the Catalan number. …
##### 2: 25.11 Hurwitz Zeta Function
25.11.37 $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^{k}}{k}\zeta\left(nk,a\right)=-n\ln\Gamma\left(a% \right)+\ln\left(\prod_{j=0}^{n-1}\Gamma\left(a-e^{(2j+1)\pi i/n}\right)\right),$ $n=2,3,4,\dots$, $\Re a\geq 1$.
25.11.39 $\sum_{k=2}^{\infty}\frac{k}{2^{k}}\zeta\left(k+1,\tfrac{3}{4}\right)=8G,$
where $G$ is Catalan’s constant:
25.11.40 $G\equiv\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{(-1)^{n}}{(2n+1)^{2}}=0.91596\;55941\;772\dots.$
##### 3: 26.6 Other Lattice Path Numbers
###### §26.6(iv) Identities
26.6.13 $M(n)=\sum_{k=0}^{n}(-1)^{k}\genfrac{(}{)}{0.0pt}{}{n}{k}C\left(n+1-k\right),$
26.6.14 $C\left(n\right)=\sum_{k=0}^{2n}(-1)^{k}\genfrac{(}{)}{0.0pt}{}{2n}{k}M(2n-k).$
##### 4: 26.1 Special Notation
 $\genfrac{(}{)}{0.0pt}{}{m}{n}$ binomial coefficient. … Catalan number. …
##### 5: 3.12 Mathematical Constants
###### §3.12 Mathematical Constants
The fundamental constant …Other constants that appear in the DLMF include the base $e$ of natural logarithms …see §4.2(ii), and Euler’s constant $\gamma$For access to online high-precision numerical values of mathematical constants see Sloane (2003). …
##### 6: 30.1 Special Notation
 $x$ real variable. Except in §§30.7(iv), 30.11(ii), 30.13, and 30.14, $-1. … arbitrary small positive constant.
The main functions treated in this chapter are the eigenvalues $\lambda^{m}_{n}\left(\gamma^{2}\right)$ and the spheroidal wave functions $\mathsf{Ps}^{m}_{n}\left(x,\gamma^{2}\right)$, $\mathsf{Qs}^{m}_{n}\left(x,\gamma^{2}\right)$, $\mathit{Ps}^{m}_{n}\left(z,\gamma^{2}\right)$, $\mathit{Qs}^{m}_{n}\left(z,\gamma^{2}\right)$, and $S^{m(j)}_{n}\left(z,\gamma\right)$, $j=1,2,3,4$. …Meixner and Schäfke (1954) use $\mathrm{ps}$, $\mathrm{qs}$, $\mathrm{Ps}$, $\mathrm{Qs}$ for $\mathsf{Ps}$, $\mathsf{Qs}$, $\mathit{Ps}$, $\mathit{Qs}$, respectively. … Flammer (1957) and Abramowitz and Stegun (1964) use $\lambda_{mn}(\gamma)$ for $\lambda^{m}_{n}\left(\gamma^{2}\right)+\gamma^{2}$, $R_{mn}^{(j)}(\gamma,z)$ for $S^{m(j)}_{n}\left(z,\gamma\right)$, and …where $d_{mn}(\gamma)$ is a normalization constant determined by …
##### 7: 16.15 Integral Representations and Integrals
16.15.1 ${F_{1}}\left(\alpha;\beta,\beta^{\prime};\gamma;x,y\right)=\frac{\Gamma\left(% \gamma\right)}{\Gamma\left(\alpha\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma-\alpha\right)}\int_% {0}^{1}\frac{u^{\alpha-1}(1-u)^{\gamma-\alpha-1}}{(1-ux)^{\beta}(1-uy)^{\beta^% {\prime}}}\mathrm{d}u,$ $\Re\alpha>0$, $\Re\left(\gamma-\alpha\right)>0$,
16.15.2 ${F_{2}}\left(\alpha;\beta,\beta^{\prime};\gamma,\gamma^{\prime};x,y\right)=% \frac{\Gamma\left(\gamma\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma^{\prime}\right)}{\Gamma\left% (\beta\right)\Gamma\left(\beta^{\prime}\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma-\beta\right)% \Gamma\left(\gamma^{\prime}-\beta^{\prime}\right)}\int_{0}^{1}\!\!\!\int_{0}^{% 1}\frac{u^{\beta-1}v^{\beta^{\prime}-1}(1-u)^{\gamma-\beta-1}(1-v)^{\gamma^{% \prime}-\beta^{\prime}-1}}{(1-ux-vy)^{\alpha}}\mathrm{d}u\mathrm{d}v,$ $\Re\gamma>\Re\beta>0$, $\Re\gamma^{\prime}>\Re\beta^{\prime}>0$,
16.15.3 ${F_{3}}\left(\alpha,\alpha^{\prime};\beta,\beta^{\prime};\gamma;x,y\right)=% \frac{\Gamma\left(\gamma\right)}{\Gamma\left(\beta\right)\Gamma\left(\beta^{% \prime}\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma-\beta-\beta^{\prime}\right)}\iint_{\Delta}% \frac{u^{\beta-1}v^{\beta^{\prime}-1}(1-u-v)^{\gamma-\beta-\beta^{\prime}-1}}{% (1-ux)^{\alpha}(1-vy)^{\alpha^{\prime}}}\mathrm{d}u\mathrm{d}v,$ $\Re\left(\gamma-\beta-\beta^{\prime}\right)>0$, $\Re\beta>0$, $\Re\beta^{\prime}>0$,
16.15.4 ${F_{4}}\left(\alpha,\beta;\gamma,\gamma^{\prime};x(1-y),y(1-x)\right)=\frac{% \Gamma\left(\gamma\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma^{\prime}\right)}{\Gamma\left(% \alpha\right)\Gamma\left(\beta\right)\Gamma\left(\gamma-\alpha\right)\Gamma% \left(\gamma^{\prime}-\beta\right)}\int_{0}^{1}\!\!\!\int_{0}^{1}\frac{u^{% \alpha-1}v^{\beta-1}(1-u)^{\gamma-\alpha-1}(1-v)^{\gamma^{\prime}-\beta-1}}{(1% -ux)^{\gamma+\gamma^{\prime}-\alpha-1}(1-vy)^{\gamma+\gamma^{\prime}-\beta-1}(% 1-ux-vy)^{\alpha+\beta-\gamma-\gamma^{\prime}+1}}\mathrm{d}u\mathrm{d}v,$ $\Re\gamma>\Re\alpha>0$, $\Re\gamma^{\prime}>\Re\beta>0$.
##### 8: 32.9 Other Elementary Solutions
with $\kappa$, $\lambda$, $\mu$, and $\nu$ arbitrary constants. … with $C$ an arbitrary constant, which is solvable by quadrature. … with $\kappa$ and $\mu$ arbitrary constants. … with $C$ an arbitrary constant, which is solvable by quadrature. … with $\kappa$ and $\mu$ arbitrary constants. …
##### 9: 5.17 Barnes’ $G$-Function (Double Gamma Function)
$G\left(z+1\right)=\Gamma\left(z\right)G\left(z\right),$
Here $B_{2k+2}$ is the Bernoulli number (§24.2(i)), and $A$ is Glaisher’s constant, given by
5.17.6 $A=e^{C}=1.28242\;71291\;00622\;63687\;\ldots,$
5.17.7 $C=\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\sum_{k=1}^{n}k\ln k-\left(\tfrac{1}{2}n^{2}+\tfrac{1% }{2}n+\tfrac{1}{12}\right)\ln n+\tfrac{1}{4}n^{2}\right)=\frac{\gamma+\ln\left% (2\pi\right)}{12}-\frac{\zeta'\left(2\right)}{2\pi^{2}}=\frac{1}{12}-\zeta'% \left(-1\right),$
For Glaisher’s constant see also Greene and Knuth (1982, p. 100) and §2.10(i).
##### 10: 30.5 Functions of the Second Kind
Other solutions of (30.2.1) with $\mu=m$, $\lambda=\lambda^{m}_{n}\left(\gamma^{2}\right)$, and $z=x$ are
30.5.1 $\mathsf{Qs}^{m}_{n}\left(x,\gamma^{2}\right),$ $n=m,m+1,m+2,\dots$.
30.5.2 $\mathsf{Qs}^{m}_{n}\left(-x,\gamma^{2}\right)=(-1)^{n-m+1}\mathsf{Qs}^{m}_{n}% \left(x,\gamma^{2}\right),$
30.5.4 $\mathscr{W}\left\{\mathsf{Ps}^{m}_{n}\left(x,\gamma^{2}\right),\mathsf{Qs}^{m}% _{n}\left(x,\gamma^{2}\right)\right\}=\frac{(n+m)!}{(1-x^{2})(n-m)!}A_{n}^{m}(% \gamma^{2})A_{n}^{-m}(\gamma^{2})\quad(\neq 0),$
with $A_{n}^{\pm m}(\gamma^{2})$ as in (30.11.4). …