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Bézier curves


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1: 3.11 Approximation Techniques
The error curve is shown in Figure 3.11.1. … In computer graphics a special type of spline is used which produces a Bézier curve. A cubic Bézier curve is defined by four points. …A complete spline results by composing several Bézier curves. A special applications area of Bézier curves is mathematical typography and the design of type fonts. …
2: 21.10 Methods of Computation
  • Tretkoff and Tretkoff (1984). Here a Hurwitz system is chosen to represent the Riemann surface.

  • Deconinck and van Hoeij (2001). Here a plane algebraic curve representation of the Riemann surface is used.

  • 3: 22.18 Mathematical Applications
    §22.18(i) Lengths and Parametrization of Plane Curves
    §22.18(iv) Elliptic Curves and the Jacobi–Abel Addition Theorem
    Algebraic curves of the form y 2 = P ( x ) , where P is a nonsingular polynomial of degree 3 or 4 (see McKean and Moll (1999, §1.10)), are elliptic curves, which are also considered in §23.20(ii). …The theory of elliptic functions brings together complex analysis, algebraic curves, number theory, and geometry: Lang (1987), Siegel (1988), and Serre (1973).
    4: 23.20 Mathematical Applications
    §23.20(ii) Elliptic Curves
    An algebraic curve that can be put either into the form …is an example of an elliptic curve22.18(iv)). … For extensive tables of elliptic curves see Cremona (1997, pp. 84–340). …
    5: 27.22 Software
  • Mathematica. PrimeQ combines strong pseudoprime tests for the bases 2 and 3 and a Lucas pseudoprime test. No known composite numbers pass these three tests, and Bleichenbacher (1996) has shown that this combination of tests proves primality for integers below 10 16 . Provable PrimeQ uses the Atkin–Goldwasser–Kilian–Morain Elliptic Curve Method to prove primality. FactorInteger tries Brent–Pollard rho, Pollard p - 1 , and then cfrac after trial division. See §27.19. ecm is available also, and the Multiple Polynomial Quadratic sieve is expected in a future release.

    For additional Mathematica routines for factorization and primality testing, including several different pseudoprime tests, see Bressoud and Wagon (2000).

  • ECMNET Project. Links to software for elliptic curve methods of factorization and primality testing.

  • 6: 28.17 Stability as x ±
    The boundary of each region comprises the characteristic curves a = a n ( q ) and a = b n ( q ) ; compare Figure 28.2.1. …
    7: Publications
  • B. V. Saunders and Q. Wang (2006) From B-Spline Mesh Generation to Effective Visualizations for the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, in Curve and Surface Design, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Curves and Surfaces, Avignon, France June 29–July 5, 2006, pp. 235–243. PDF
  • B. Saunders and Q. Wang (2010) Tensor Product B-Spline Mesh Generation for Accurate Surface Visualizations in the NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, in Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces, Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Mathematical Methods for Curves and Surfaces (MMCS 2008), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5862, (M. Dæhlen, M. Floater., T. Lyche, J. L. Merrien, K. Mørken, L. L. Schumaker, eds), Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (2010) pp. 385–393. PDF
  • 8: 19.30 Lengths of Plane Curves
    §19.30 Lengths of Plane Curves
    §19.30(i) Ellipse
    §19.30(ii) Hyperbola
    §19.30(iii) Bernoulli’s Lemniscate
    9: 21.7 Riemann Surfaces
    §21.7(i) Connection of Riemann Theta Functions to Riemann Surfaces
    Belokolos et al. (1994, §2.1)), they are obtainable from plane algebraic curves (Springer (1957), or Riemann (1851)). …Equation (21.7.1) determines a plane algebraic curve in 2 , which is made compact by adding its points at infinity. …
    §21.7(iii) Frobenius’ Identity
    These are Riemann surfaces that may be obtained from algebraic curves of the form …
    10: 27.18 Methods of Computation: Primes
    The ECPP (Elliptic Curve Primality Proving) algorithm handles primes with over 20,000 digits. …