In (4.8.1)–(4.8.4) .
This is interpreted that every value of is one of the values of
, and vice versa.
In (4.8.5)–(4.8.7) and (4.8.10)
If and has its general value, then
If and has its principal value, then
where the integer is chosen so that
The restriction on can be removed when is an integer.