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§31.14 General Fuchsian Equation

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§31.14(i) Definitions

The general second-order Fuchsian equation with N+1 regular singularities at z=aj, j=1,2,,N, and at , is given by

31.14.1 d2wdz2+(j=1Nγjz-aj)dwdz+(j=1Nqjz-aj)w=0,
j=1Nqj=0.

The exponents at the finite singularities aj are {0,1-γj} and those at are {α,β}, where

31.14.2 α+β+1 =j=1Nγj,
αβ =j=1Najqj.

The three sets of parameters comprise the singularity parameters aj, the exponent parameters α,β,γj, and the N-2 free accessory parameters qj. With a1=0 and a2=1 the total number of free parameters is 3N-3. Heun’s equation (31.2.1) corresponds to N=3.

Normal Form

§31.14(ii) Kovacic’s Algorithm

An algorithm given in Kovacic (1986) determines if a given (not necessarily Fuchsian) second-order homogeneous linear differential equation with rational coefficients has solutions expressible in finite terms (Liouvillean solutions). The algorithm returns a list of solutions if they exist.

For applications of Kovacic’s algorithm in spatio-temporal dynamics see Rod and Sleeman (1995).