# §16.25 Methods of Computation

Methods for computing the functions of the present chapter include power series, asymptotic expansions, integral representations, differential equations, and recurrence relations. They are similar to those described for confluent hypergeometric functions, and hypergeometric functions in §§13.29 and 15.19. There is, however, an added feature in the numerical solution of differential equations and difference equations (recurrence relations). This occurs when the wanted solution is intermediate in asymptotic growth compared with other solutions. In these cases integration, or recurrence, in either a forward or a backward direction is unstable. Instead a boundary-value problem needs to be formulated and solved. See §§3.6(vii), 3.7(iii), Olde Daalhuis and Olver (1998), Lozier (1980), and Wimp (1984, Chapters 7, 8).